THE ANCIENT NORMAN FIEF DE BLONDEL
OF THE CHANNEL ISLANDS - BAILIWICK OF GUERNSEY (A CROWN
DEPENDENCY OF THE DUKE OF NORMANDY ! ) A 842 Year Old Normandy Fief and Tradition !
" THE SEIGNEUR OF FIEF THOMAS
ET FIEF DE L'EPERONS "Est. 1179
Greetings from the Ancient Lords, Dames and Seigneurs of Private Fief Blondel Est. 1179
- "Le Seigneurs de la Fief Thomas Blondel & Fief de L'Eperons including the Fief Bouvée
Duquemin in Torteval
The Fief of Thom. Blondel is One of the Last Great Private Fiefs of Normandy registered directly with the
Crown's Royal Courts in Her Majesty's Crown Dependencies
Fiefdom In feudalism, a fiefdom (also called a fief, feud, feoff,
or fee) was a property or right that an overlord, seigneur or Lehnsherr (sometimes granted directly from a King
or Queen) gave a vassal in exchange for fealty or service. This property, of whatever size, could be
inherited by the Lord's heirs.
Some Fiefs are Free Fiefs registered directly from the Sovereign such as this ancient Norman Fief.
The Lords of the Guernsey fiefs were originally all:
" liberi homines " and " franc-tenans
", free men, or free tenants. In other parts of Scandanivia, Frankonia, Germania, the name is Free
Lord, Free Tenant, or Feudal Lord.
Friherre af Fief Blondel, Kanaløyer Est. 1179 - "R.Frhr." or "RFrhr."
History of the Viking Norman Seigneur & Fiefdoms
481–843 Kingdom of the Franks (Latin: Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom,
Frankland or Frankish Empire - Merovingian rise and decline, 481–687; Clovis's sons; Chlothar; Francia split into
Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy; Rule of Chlothar II; Dagobert I; Dominance of the mayors of the palace, 687–751;
Death of Pepin; Umayyad invasion; Carolingian empire, 751–840; Divided empire, after 840
843–987AD - Kingdom of the West Franks - The Channel Islands were held
by Frankish Kings until Rollo the Viking conquered Normandy in 911AD
911AD - ROLLO the VIKING - The Norse Channel
Islands of France's Normandy were conquered by the Vikings before 911AD. As a concession to the invaders, Fiefs of
the Channel Islands begin with the Grants by King Charles the Simple. In 912, Charles the Simple, King of France,
ceded to Rollo, the great Norwegian Viking Chieftain, the province of Neustria, now called Normandy, and Rollo
became the first duke of that province. On his baptism and marriage with Gisele, daughter of Charles, he also
received Brittany, for which Juhael Berengier, Earl of Rennes, did him homage.
911AD. The Great Viking Chief Rollo Göngu-Hrólfr or Gaange Rolf
is first Seigneur of the Guernsey Islands. Chief Rollo was a Viking
Warrior who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France. He is sometimes called the 1st Duke of Normandy
and speculations point to Denmark as Rollo's birth place. Guernsey, second largest of the Channel Islands. It is 30
miles (48 km) west of Normandy, France, and roughly triangular in shape. With Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou, and
associated islets, it forms the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The reigning Queen or King of England is still known as the
"Duke of Normandy" to all those in the Channel Islands. This fief was held directly from the Crown which
would imply that the title appying to the Fief Blondel during the Norman Age was Reichsfriherre. The common
Dane/Germanic acronym for "Reichsfreiherr" is "R.Frhr." or "RFrhr." for short.
933AD the islands were granted to William I Longsword by Raoul, the
King of Western Francia, and annexed to the Duchy of Normandy
1020AD - The Fief de Blondel or Fiefdom of Thomas Blondel came about
through the medieval fragmentation of Fief Au Canelly and consequently, of the initial half of Guernésiais or
Guernsey given by Duke Richard II in 1020 to Neel, Vicomte of the Cotentin.
Fief Blondel was part of Fief Canelly and Fief of the Cotentin of Torteval and Fief
of Bessin ( or Bayeux ) which was in St. Pierre-du-Bois, and Blondel may have had territory in the Fief of
Ansquetil.. Thus, Blondel is one of the only fiefs which has territory in all of the great fiefs
The holders of the property title of the Fief Blondel territory were
Counts or Viscounts of Contentin and Bessin. The definition of a vicomte is a French nobleperson,
ranked just above a baron. This fief Blondel was held directly from the Crown which would imply that the
title appying to the Fief Blondel during the Norman Age was Reichsfriherre. The common Dane/Germanic acronym for
"Reichsfreiherr" is "R.Frhr." or "RFrhr." for short.
In 1066, William the Conqueror mandated Norman Feudal Tenure into England and the
Channel Islands and divided it up into 700+ baronies or fiefs. The Lord Barons were called Seigneurs Normands who
were part of the new Kingdom of William the Conqueror.
12th Century Kingdom of France, the term baronnie or Baron was generally applied to all lords or seigneurs
possessing an important fief, but laterin the
13th century the title of Baron meant that the holder held his Fief
directly from the Crown and was thus more important than a count since counts were
typically vassals. Several Knightly Orders were created - Order of the Genet 726AD - Order of the Star 1022AD - Order of the Thistle of Bourbon 1370AD. These three orders are still
maintained by the Seigneur of Fief Blondel
AD 1179 - We find Legal Reference of Lord Seigneur of Thomas
Blondel, a noble fief, in a charter of 1179AD when he is witnessing a grant to St. Michael's Mount. He is Robert
Malmarchie (Thomas Blondel).
1204 AD - Fief Blondel and other
Ancient Fiefs were Forfeited to the Crown with separation of Guernsey from France and Normandy and
given to loyal Seigneurs and Dames who were Feudal Lords to the Sovereign of the UK Crown.
AD - The Parish of St. Andrew in which Thomas Blondel lies contained a group of four late 12 century
ecclesiastical Fiefs, one held by the Bishop of Countances, the second held by the Abbot of Cormery, Tours, the
third held by the Abbot of La Croix St. Lewfroy, Evreux, and the fourth held by the Abbess of Trinity, Caen. The
Fief Thomas Blondel derives its name, as we have already observed from the family of
Malmarcher or Malmarchy who are recorded in the charters as existing in Guernsey in the 12th
Century. Today, The region of The Fief de Thomas Blondel lies in
both St Pierre du Bois (St. Peter of the Wood) and of the
Parish of Notre Dame de Torteval along with the Blondel Dependency Fief de l'Eperon of
Torteval Parish of the Island of
In 1270, on the death of Sir Henry Le Canelly, the great Guernsey
fief Fief Au Canelly was divided between his daughters.
Guilemette, the wife of Henry de Saint Martin obtained a considerable part of the island originating
the Fiefs of Janin Besnard, Jean du Gaillard, Guillot Justice and Thomas Blondel. This was confirmed by
the tenants and officers of the Fief in letters patent issued by Guernsey's Royal Court under the Bailiwick Seal in
1463. The original noble, Thomas Blondel was a jurat of Guernsey’s Royal Court from 1421-45. The Blondel family has
given several jurats to the island. Later the Columbines and Fiotts were the holders of the title. For a time, the
rights over the Fief were divided in two.
In 12th Century Kingdom of France, the term baronnie or Baron was generally applied
to all lords or seigneurs possessing an important fief, but later in
13th century the title of Baron meant that the holder held his Fief
directly from the Crown and was thus more important than a count since counts were
France Held Guernsey 1338-1345 - The islands were
invaded by the French in 1338, who held some territory until
Edward III of England granted a Charter in July 1341 to Jersey, Guernsey,
Sark and Alderney, confirming their customs and laws to secure allegiance to the English
1378 Guernsey Charter Liberties and Tax Treatment -
The young King Richard II of England reconfirmed in 1378 the Charter rights granted by his grandfather,
followed in 1394 with a second Charter granting, because of great loyalty shown to the Crown, exemption
for ever, from English tolls, customs and
A 1440 Record of the
Fiefdom Deed of the Fief of Thomas Blondel which the deed is still at University Leeds,
shows the parishes of St Peter of the Wood and Torteval, Guernsey, made by Janet Blondel to Thomas de la
Court. attested by Jean Bonamy and Jacques Guille, jurats. According to the Deed, the Fief Blondel further includes the: Fief
Blondel territory in the parishes of St Pierre du Bois (St. Peter of the Wood) and of Notre Dame de Torteval
along with the Fief de l'Eperon of Torteval, the Bouvée Phlipot Pain, lying in the said parish of St Pierre duBois,
and the Bouvée Torquetil and Bouvée Bourgeon lying in the said parish of Torteval. SEE
DIGITAL FIEF MAP
1848 - French Nobility and Titles are
eliminated while the Fief Seigneurs of Guernsey continue to exist under Ancient British Norman
1919 - Nobility eliminated in Germany and
Austria. Since 1919 nobility is no longer legally recognized in Germany. Under the Law on the
Abolition of Nobility, Austria eliminated its noble classes in 1919. However in Guernsey, the ancient property
titles of Fief Seigneur or Free Lord of a Fief continued to exist.
A few of these Guernsey fiefs are still registered directly with the Crown where a
treizième or conge was paid in Royal Court to Her Majesty. A lawyer must be hired to register the fief in French. Conge is part of the feudal past when a due (representing
one thirteenth of the property price) was charged on the property changing hands and was paid to the Seigneur of
the fief upon which the property sat. It remains due and payable to the Receiver General in respect of the
conveyance of fiefs. The
owners of Fiefs maintain the legal right to be styled with the ancient title
of: Seigneur or Dame.
In the case of the Fief Blondel, the fee was paid by the Seigneur of Fief Blondel
directly to the Crown of the United Kingdom. There may be only a few legally recognized feudal fiefs in the world
left at this time which are legally allowed or directly registered with a Sovereign King or
The Noble Fief of Blondel is one of the island's few "private fiefs" or"
feudal titles" not held by the King and Queen.
The Feudal Lord's of Blondel - Approx. Chronology of FreeLords who Held the
1st Count of Normandy
Viking Seigneur Duke Rollo 911AD
) - Feudal Duke & Lord -
Great Viking Chief Rollo Göngu-Hrólfr or Gaange Rolf - Le Seigneur of the Noble Fief including
Fief Blondel a Norman Freeholder Lord of property, region, and land rights over small
palatinates. Also known in Northern, Viking,
& Scandanavian Countries as: Free Lord - Friherre - The Fief Thomas
2nd Duke Seigneur and
Duke - William, Duke of Normandy
(Viscount or C
3rd Seigneur or Count - Vicomte de Cotentin - Néel de
Saint-Sauveur was also known as: (Niel, Nigel) II (III) de Saint-Saveur, Vicomte de Cotentin
born in 1016 and died around 1073.
4thSeigneur - King John Duke of Normandy
- 1204-5AD - Separation of Guernsey
from Normandy, The loss of Normandy by King John in 1204 isolated the Channel Islands from mainland
Europe where up to today, Guernsey is an independent crown dependency. Self governing but loyal
to the Crown of England
5th Seigneur - King Henry 1254
6th Seigneur Edward
I - In 1254 Henry granted the Islands to his son,
the future Edward I, but at the same time stipulated that the Islands were never to be separated from
the English Crown.
7th Seigneur of the Fief Blondel and
(Feudal-Free-Lord) The Family Le Canellys until 1270 - Fief Blondel and other Fiefs are Forfeited to the
Crown with separation from Normandy and given to loyal Seigneurs and Dames.
8th Seigneur or Dames - In
1270AD , on the death of Sir Henry Le Canelly, the large Guernsey fief
"Fief Au Canelly" or 'Le Kenele' was divided between his daughters. Guilemette, the wife of
de Saint Martin obtained a considerable part of the island which originated the fiefs of Janin
Besnard, Jean du Gaillard, Guillot Justice and Thomas Blondel.
The Assize Rolls of 1309 and 1320, and a deed at Warwick Castle throw light on this last
entry, as they show that Drouet de St Martin had married Dame Guilemette
and Thomas de Vic, Dame Lucie
, daughters and co-heiresses
of Sir Henry Le Canelly
, Knight, Seigneur of Le Canelly, an important
Guernsey manor which stretched over part of the parishes of Torteval, St Peter-in-the-Wood
and St Saviour.
At the Assizes held in Guernsey, 1309, The de St Martin brothers declared that Henry de St
Martin and Avice de Vic held the inheritance of 'Le Kenele' or Fief Cannely between them in
the parishes of Torteval and St Peter-in-the-Wood, suit of court, the right of chase and
court of their tenants. This inheritance passed in moiety to the Fief Blondel and
other fiefs within Fief Cannely
9th Seigneur of Fief Blondel - Sir
William De Chesney 1284- Sir William De Chesney
is named as the Seigneur of the Fief Thomas Blondel
in 1284 AD which
is 740 years ago
that this noble feudal fief has existed under the direct relationship with the Crown of
10th Lord Seigneur - Le Dame Janet Blondel and Blondel Family
until 1440. Thomas Blondel was born in 1422 in Guernsey. His father was Guillaume Blondel, of La
Perelle. Thomas Blondel's son Nicholas BLONDEL is listed in some websites as the Seigneur of:
(Fief Thos. Blondel of Fief Canelly). A John Blondel was bailiff of Guernsey in
11th 1440 - Seigneur of Fief Blondel -
Sieur Thomas De La Court under the protection of Prince & Duke of Gloucester, Lord of the
Islands at the time. Seigneur De La Court
fief Thomas Blondel and Fiefs de l'Eperon lying in the said parish of Torteval and likewise all and
such seigneuries, dignities, liberties, graces and franchises as to the aforesaid fiefs and each of
them attach and belong with a certain dinner which the said Jenete takes and owns annually for an
estate of inheritance, she claims, on the fief of the Prior of Lihou. De La Court was the Bailiff of the Island 2 times.
1481 - Papal Bull in
1481 directed against attacks on the islanders that
had the effect, beneficial to trade, of making Guernsey protected by
the Vatican .
12th Seigneur of Fief Blondel -
Freeholder-Feudal-Lord & Friherre/Freiherr) George S. Le Couteur, Seigneur
of Fief Thomas Blondel
13th Lord Seigneurs or Freeholder-Feudal-Lord
& Friherre or Freiherr) Seigneur Daniel Hardy & Le Dame Marie Guille in the
1700's until year 1800.
14th Lord) Seigneur Pierre Robillard of Maison de
Pleinmont, Torteval, was the Seigneur of Fief de Thomas Blondel. The rights over the Fief again joined
during the XIX century as shown in documents of 11/10/1800 (Reg Tome 26, p 420) and 19/05/1798 - Pierre
Robilliard obtained the Fief from Daniel Hardy & Marie Guille. 1800 "Monsieur
Pierre Robilliard, Seigneur des fiefs Thomas Blondel,
Guillot Justice, Bouvee du Quemin, et fief La Cour Ricard
Seigneur - Mr. George S. Le
Couteur bought and became Seigneur of fief Thomas Blondel. Some other
minor fiefs may have remained to Dame Mary Robilliard, wife of M. Le P. Coquierre, and so
passed to their daughter, Miss Le Coquierre.
German Empire - Fief
Blondel, Guernsey, occupied by Germany, 1940-1945.
16th Seigneur ( Count Marcov ) The rights
of Fief Thomas Blondel acquired from Le Couteur Family by (Count & Seigneur Dr.
Marcov of Spain) from Sept. 2000 until December of 2017.
17th Free Lord & Seigneur -
Commissioner & Counselor George Mentz JD MBA, Seigneur
of Fief of Blondel et L'Epersons ) on
the island of (Dgèrnésiais - Guernsey French) in
the rights of the Private Fief of Thomas Blondel were acquired by George Mentz, Esq of the
United States. Acquired by conveyance and payment of: Duty, Treizième & Congé,
and Jurats fee, and Fief Permission Fees to the HM/Crown and Receiver General, HM Clerk Greffier
and Courts ** Mentz is
an international advocate lawyer who studied Common, Civil and French/Latin Law who has a keen
interest in maintaining the Feudal Courts of the Fief Blondel because it is one of the
oldest feudal courts in the world. Mentz is also
the titular feudal Lord Baron of Ancient Longford-Westmeath in Ireland through acquisition from
the original sale from Earl and Lord Westmeath. The Seigneur of the Fief of Thomas Blondel
also holds the ancient Fief of Spurs or The Fief à Eperon as a
dependency. George Mentz,
Seigneur of Fief de Blondel (A Norman Fief) is a direct descendant of William the Conqueror and
Rollo the Viking, 1st Duke of Normandy. Mentz traces his roots from the McConnells to the
Flemings, Ker, Drummond Campbell and Stewart Families. From there up to the Kings and Queens of
England to the Plantagenets. George Mentz is also a direct descendent of Henry V The
Blondell (1216 – 24 December 1281) The Count of Luxembourg - The Counts of Luxembourg are
descendents of the Count of Arlon and Dukes of Limburg which was a dynasty in present day
Belgium and Luxembourg.
Mentz is The Last American Seigneur International Advocate. ™
The Seigneury of the Fief of Blondel historically over
the last 700 years contains about seven bouvées of land called the Bouvée Phlipot
Pain, lying in the said parish of St Pierre duBois, and the
bouvées Torquetil and Bourgeon along with the Fief de
l'Eperon lying in the
said parish of Torteval and likewise all and such
seigneuries, dignities, liberties, graces and franchises as to the aforesaid fiefs and each of them attach and belong with a
certain dinner annually supplied by the fief of the Prior of Lihou.
2017 to Present Day - The Goverment's Court of Chief Pleas is an ancient Court and is constituted in the same way
as a Full Court. Nowadays it will typically sit only once per year. It is attended by the Full Court, the Law
Officers of the Crown, Advocates and the Fief Seigneurs and Bordiers owing suit to the Court. The Feudal Lords of
the Fief are recognized directly by registration with the crown and royal courts. Many esteemed lawyers and
officers are in attendance each year at Michaelmas which is a Christian festival observed in some Western
liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel, usually Uriel, is also
added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial, judicial, and academic year. Michaelmas
annual Court in Guernsey is usually on the first Monday of October accompained by government meetings, roll calls,
traditional march parade, and dinner of legal, governmental, and feudal dignitaries.
Commissioner Dr. Mentz, Seigneur of Fief Blondel attending Chief
Fief Blondel Territory - Free Lords and Counts
The Fief territory itself is spread over areas in the parishes of St. Pierre-du-Bois
and Torteval and contains within it ancient buildings, beachfront, foreshore, ocean access, & port lands of the
island. The private Fief Blondel may be one of the few Legal Fiefs in the World that does not require or demand
annual or periodic fealty or oaths to and from the Crown. Thus, it is an independent and free fiefdom and one of
the oldest surviving fiefs and lordships in the world. The Lord of a Channel Island Fief would be called a Seigneur
or Dame or in other languages a Feudal Lord, Lehnsherr (Germanic), Friherre (Viking/Danish), or føydalherren
(Norwegian). As this free lordship direct from the Crown is Norman and predates typical baronial titles, it is one
of the most ancient fief titles in continuous use in the world. The term baron was not used or created until 1387
by Richard II when he created Baron of Kidderminster and in 1433, the second baron was created "Baron
Ancient Feudal Court of Fief Blondel
The Chief Pleas of the Seignorial court of Seigneurial court of Fief Thomas Blondel
were originally held annually at the mounting block or steps (perron) of the Church of St.
Pierre-du-Bois. Now the Cheif Pleas Annual Court is held at the Old Government House and is led by the
Government of Guernsey where all of the Seigneurs and Bordiers attend and make procession in the streets of
Guernsey as they have done for over hundreds of years.
The Fief Blondel is a private fief dating back to 1179 in the Crown Holding Island of
Guernsey where the owners of a fief directly from the Crown are called a Seigneur according to present
Where is Fief Blondel
Fief Blondel – is a feudal area of land for which residents once paid fees or
rendered services to the Lord Baron or Seigneur in return for the right to use the land in commerce. The
Free Fief Blondel is in two parishes or counties of Torteval and St. Peter of the Wood. The Fief sits on
the Eastern part of the island and includes areas in the North, Central and South East Sections of the Island
including: beach, woods, buildings, common areas, sacred lands, and other commercial buildings and farm land along
with potentially including small islands offshore of the fiefs beach and foreshore. The Fief Blondel has
foreshore in Roquaine Bay and Portelet Beach where " The Bissets " Rock Islands are considered part of the
Fief Thomas Blondel.
Historically, fiefs and small baronnies of land, were granted as a form of
over-lordship, giving the Free-Lord or Seigneurs the rights over the people and property on that land under the
ancient Northman/Norman feudal system.
Style of Seigneur - As per the
The Feudal Dues (Guernsey) Law, 1980 Style of Seigneur of a fief etc. Section 4. The foregoing provisions of this
Law shall be without prejudice –
(a) to the right of any person to use, in the case of a male person, the style of Seigneur and, in the case of a
female person, the style of Dame, of a fief,
(b) to the feudal relationship between Her Majesty and any person holding an interest in a private fief on or at
any time after the commencement of this Law, or to the feudal relationship between any person holding an interest
in any fief and any person holding an interest in a dependency of that fief, and
(c) to the right or obligation of any person by virtue of that person holding an interest in any fief which is not
a right to which those provisions apply or any obligation correlative thereto.
Most of the legal rights formerly enjoyed by the Seigneurs of fiefs having been
abolished by law in 1966 but international law and custom still pertains to the rights of beaches, airwaves,
underground, common areas, foreshore, and other rights such as hunting and fishing.
A fief owner does register the title in an act of legal title conveyance with Her
Majesty's Receiver General much like the transfer of land rights, mineral rights or water rights and the fief
buyer pays special consideration of Treizième & Congé fees to the CROWN for the transfer and rights. The Fief
holder can be styled Seigneur (or Dame) du Fief de la .....
Generally speaking, the title is not normally used except in formal settings. A fief,
in legal theory, is held directly from the Crown. However, this fief does not owe homage or any other services but
does maintain rights to conduct customs and formalities such as creating
honorific Fief Officers and Courts or possibly representing the
Fief in any unclaimed area of law such as foreshore, airwaves, water rights, hunting and fishing rights
The International Court of Justice Addresses many issues of Normandy, The English
Crown, and ownership of the Channel Island Fiefs in various cases.
During the Dane and Viking expansion of 800-1100, Guernsey is even mentioned in the
Edda. Guernsey was subject to Brittany until 933 when they were added to the Duchy of Normandy. Many of the
Fiefs were owned by Norman Seigneurs and thus the fiefs of Guernsey are Norman titles. King Philip declared the
islands forfeited in 1204 to England and King John. In 1568 after being Catholic for hundreds of years,
Guernsey was attached to the diocese of Winchester England. The Bailiwick of Guernsey dats from about 1290 where
there is a Lieutenant Governor and bailiff and royal court presiding for the Crown. Guernsey is not bound by
parliament unless specifically named.
English……... Free Lord
or Baron of Feudal Baron
French……… Sgr. Seigneur or Dame
Italian………. Seignor/Barone Baronessa
German……. Frhr. Freiherr Freifrau
Swedish……. Frhr. Friherre Friherrinna
Norwegian…. Frhr. Friherre Friherrinna
Dutch………. Frhr. Vrijheer Vrijvrouw
Danish……… Frhr. Friherre Friherreinde
One of the Oldest Noble Grants and Territories in Continuous Existence with Continous Crown Recognition -
Fief Blondel appears to be older than the Seigneurs of Monaco as the Grimaldi family settled in Monaco in 1297 and
Fief Blondel is also older than ancient Sheikhdom of Kuwait, Kingdom of Moscovy Russia 1362, Kingdom of Spain
1479, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Belgium. Fief Blondel may also be older than the Ottomon Empire, Habsburg
Empire, and the Kingdom of Lithuania.
Fief de Thomas Blondel
Livres de perchage
” in 1595, 1644, 1680, 1709, 1775, 1809, 1844, 1876, 1901, 1921 and 1968. The contents of the
Livres de perchage
” reveal something of the history of the properties of the Territory and Fief boundaries.
** The fiefs of Thomas Blondel, Guillot Justice, Bouvee Duquemin adn Cour Ricard total about 238/9 vergees in
Torteval and St. Peter in the Wood. They are parts of the ancient Fief au Canelly. In 1890 the
Seigneur of Fief Blondel was Pierre Robilliard (Pleinmont). His Brother T Robilliard (Pleinmont) held
the Torteval Fiefs Duquemin, Fief Guillot Justice and Fief Cour Riqua or Ricar. In the Livre de Percharge of
Fief Thomas Blondel year 1968, Bouvee Duquemin is included as part of Thomas Blondel again, and we are to assume
that Guillot Justice and Cour Ricard/Riqua were also transferred back to the Seigneur of Thomas Blondel.
Order of the Genet
of the Start Est. 1022-Knights of the
Thistle of Bourbon